What is a product spec?

A product specification, or product spec, refers to a document outlining key features, functions, capabilities, and use parameter requirements for a planned product offering. In this context, a product spec reflects not only the needs, expectations, and preferences of target end-users but also those of the product owner. Note that while this document primarily defines a product offering in its entirety, a product spec can also elaborate upon a single feature, function, or capability.


For example, the product spec for a portable air conditioning unit details user-centric features, such as portability due to low unit weight, room/space-defined heating/cooling capability, heating/cooling/humidifier multi-functionality, user-friendly control interface, etc. In addition, the product’s specification outlines owner/industry-defined attributes such as the air conditioner’s operating voltage, applicable use-case scenarios, etc.

Significance of Product Specs

In business, a product spec is an essential initial document in the design and development stages. This document acts as an objective realization and task implementation guideline for product improvement teams. A product spec fulfills this role by comprehensively defining two product-centric implementation realities, namely:

What, Why, and How of a Planned Product Offering

A product spec describes the planned product, i.e., whether it is a tangible product, a service offering, or a new feature to be added to an existing product. This information is presented regarding how a would-be product addresses existing/expected user needs/expectations and why the offering targets a specific market segment.

Business Objectives achieved by a Planned Product

This essential product development document outlines the array of business objectives achieved by the ultimate realization of the product. A product owner can achieve Viable product-centric goals through a planned product launch, including boosting niche-specific sales, negating persistent poor sales performance, matching a competing product market offering, etc.


By defining core business objectives and user-centric capabilities of a planned product, a product spec allows product/service improvement teams to streamline the design, development, and deployment process right from the start.

The Ideal Product Spec

The ideal product spec for a planned product necessitates that a product/service improvement team first seek out up-to-date, product-centric, and user-defined data, i.e., customer feedback. While liaising with an in-house customer care department achieves this informational prerequisite, the team should use an independent third-party source of customer-defined data, i.e., independent market analytic firms.


Relying on multiple sources of product-specific user data allows a product development team to eliminate bias in significant findings derived from a thorough analysis of the information. After completing a comprehensive customer feedback analysis, a product task force can correctly identify and elaborate define the implied needs, expectations, and preferences of target end-users.


At this point, the product task force can then embark on multi-departmental brainstorming sessions that focus on findings derived from customer feedback research. This approach ensures the team broadens its outlook on how to address, resolve, or boost observed product-centric customer-defined needs. All that remains is to beta test a prototype of the planned product to verify or disapprove a product/service improvement strategy.



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